The following is a rough draft of Ger Terminology. I'm not sure what this concept will look like in its final format; right now this is a little insight into what the genre looks like straight from text. As time goes on I hope to have a pure 'enclyclopedic dictionary' for the whole of Ger. In the meantime, here is 1.0 and I welcome your feedback. You can always write me at email@example.com
*Note this is advanced reading, and should be read (and re-read) slowly and with careful review. Think of this as a study workbook.
This is also an unfinished work, i.e. non-exhaustive...please keep these points in mind; enjoy.
Lexicon of Terms
Encyclopedic Dictionary For ‘Non-Jews in Torah’
(A Guide to Understanding Rabbinic Noahism Ikkar Terms and Phrases)
'Geulah has a larger framework than you thought'
Compiled and written by Rabbi David Katz
Ikkar Term/Phrase: a word or phrase in Torah that carries inherent and specific meaning; not limited to obvious context. This would be a simple explanation of the essence of the Written Torah. Everything is an ikkar term/expression in potential. While remaining blind to the ikkar, one assumes obvious context and meaning. Once aware, the word or phrase takes on a deeper, profound meaning. To aide in locating and defining ikkar terms and phrases, God gave an Oral Torah to accompany the Written Torah.
The Oral Torah is the discipline [and subsequent writings] of ‘working with all things ikkar’; the concretization of the Oral Torah has founded [draconian] religion [and dogma]. When viewed correctly, the Oral Torah serves as a commentary to the ikkar. For example, Rashi explains the Written Torah by copy and paste from the Oral Torah. What he has done is locate the ikkar, and provided its definition and context. Rashi has chosen to do this within the confines of Lefi Pshuto, i.e. rabbinic ikkar and meaning as opposed to prophetic or kabbalistic. Throughout the Oral Torah, one will find kabbalistic practices that do exactly what Rashi and other Lefi Pshuto authorities do, only they seek to provide the prophetic meaning to the ikkar words and phrases.
The two look similar and the process is identical. The difference is the prophetic reveals the ikkar wisdom of the Bible, and the rabbinic reveals the wisdom of the Talmud. The Talmud is rabbinic/halachic reality, and serves Judaism the religion. The Bible is the study solely about God; it is devoid of religion. The difference is that all religion should be dedicated to God, but God is not found in all religion. An example would be that the Jewish religion maintains customs and practices that are good for the Jewish People and the Jewish religion, but do not necessarily reflect the absolute will of God. But while serving God, the Jewish People have a Jewish religion to do so.
This in general is called Torah. One could argue that there are two paradigms (‘Tzvei Dinim’) at play: The Torah and the fence to the Torah. Both are necessary, but being able to differentiate between the two is a fundamental aspect of Torah Judaism. The difference is the same between exile and redemption consciousness, and the difference between the prophet and the rabbi, etc.
Ger: alien, stranger, foreigner [Biblical]; any other definition is Talmudic, i.e. ‘Lefi Pshuto’
Ger Toshav: legal fiction [term]; a Ger Toshav [is a term that] is defined by its associative ‘Ikkar Term/Phrase’
Ger Toshav ‘who doesn’t serve idols’: a non-Jew who has turned away from idolatry. A Ger Toshav who is associated with the ikkar phrase ‘doesn’t serve idols’ generally has a connotation of a proper rejection of idolatry, i.e. has rejected ‘shituf’. Shituf is any belief in God that attributes shared powers upon the Almighty. The Jewish commandment from Sinai to reject idolatry implies a rejection of shituf. Thus the non-Jew who rejects shituf (with an oath; kabbalah) has chosen to perform this commandment (1 out of 7 of the Noahide Laws) in the way that an Israelite performs the same commandment.
If the non-Jew keeps all 7 Laws of Noah, and rejects shituf with an oath in the way that a Jew was commanded to at Sinai, he is not a ‘complete Ger Toshav’ [i.e. a full ‘Ger Toshav in the time of Jubilee’], but rather a ‘partial Ger Toshav’, or in other words, he is allowed to be called (‘in the name of’; ‘compared to’) Ger Toshav. Another term that he may be called is [a ‘proper Ben Noah’; ‘Ben Noah Kosher’] ‘Ben Noah’ – i.e. ‘not a complete Ger Toshav’.
Ben Noah: Any ‘non-Jew’. It can also imply [based on context] one who is attempting to keep the ‘Noahide Laws’, or one who is successfully keeping the Noahide Laws. It can also mean one is not quite a ‘full Ger Toshav’, i.e. has chosen to take on more than the standard Noahide Law, but ‘has not or cannot appear before Beit Din’. Context will reveal the ikkar usage, and provide insight as to connotation.
Ben Noah Kosher: a Ben Noah who has taken on more than the standard Noahide Law. Usually this means a proper rejection of shituf and/or an observance of the ‘Ger Toshav Shabbat’. This term is synonymous with a Proper Ben Noah.
Ger Toshav Shabbat: One who is not a ‘Nochri’ by either rejecting shituf or ‘properly accepting upon one’s self the Noahide Laws’, may choose to ‘observe the Sabbath’ by ‘performing Melacha’, but refraining from ‘performing Melacha for a Jew’. This removes the Ger Toshav from the category of a ‘Shabbos Goy’, and his Shabbat observance is not considered ‘observing the Jewish Shabbat’, for to do so would be considered to ‘make a new religion’.
Nochri: a non-Jew, by standing as a non-Israel ideologically. This term is synonymous with acum, goy, non-Jew, and sometimes kuti. Nochri is a Biblical term, while the others are Talmudic synonyms.
Lefi Pshuto: Rabbinic meaning and reality of an Ikkar term or phrase. This is the opposite of a literal (simple) or prophetic meaning to a Torah Ikkar term or phrase. For example, the commandment to ‘Learn Torah’ is generally not discussed on a literal level. It is an ikkar phrase, which comes to imply a ‘Jewish command to learn Torah’. Thus it is not literal and is not discussed literally. It would only be discussed in the manner of its implications of a Jewish commandment to learn Torah. Thus it must be understood, Lefi pshuto, i.e. rabbinically, based on rabbinic reality, context, and meaning; i.e. non-literal, and contained within a pre-determined Talmudic reality and specific [to] context.
Melacha: Prohibited creative work in regard to Shabbat. A Jew is prohibited from performing melacha, a nochri may not do melacha for a Jew, and Ger Toshav who has either rejected idolatry or properly accepted the Noahide Laws, performs melacha, but not for a Jew.
Tzvei Dinim (two dinim/laws): often times one word or phrase (mostly ikkar) will have two distinct (-ly different) meanings and associations. For example, Ger Toshav usually either implies rejection of shituf, or proper acceptance of Noahide Law. Both are called Ger Toshav, and thus the term carries two laws.
One could ask, ‘how would anyone ever know the difference?’ The answer is that each time Ger Toshav is brought, one must realize that it is an ikkar, and therefore it is part of a larger (seemingly superfluous) phrase. If it says, ‘A Ger Toshav who doesn’t serve idols’… The term that carries tzvei dinim is ‘Ger Toshav’ and the lefi pshuto definition is ‘who doesn’t serve idols’; that is its ikkar, and therefore the Ger Toshav is not the same as one who properly accepted the Noahide Laws. They would effectively be different types of Ger Toshav, hence ‘legal fiction’.
Neither one is a Ger Toshav. What it is in truth, is that two different people in two different scenarios exist in a rabbinic reality, where the name Ger Toshav is apropos. Thus Ger Toshav is lefi pshuto, restricted to Talmudic use, and is therefore a rabbinic, non-prophetic term. This would be most effective in ‘Fenced-in Judaism’. If we were to speak about the same person Biblically, in their service of God, as told prophetically, they would be simply called Ger. The prophetic ikkar is Ger, and its ikkar meaning is ‘The Ger in your Gate’. This explanation is not Talmudic, but represented through kabbalistic or Midrashic wisdom.
Such an explanation reveals a Ger who would come to the Temple to give an offering or hear the Torah, as opposed to a Ger Toshav who fulfills a rabbinic decree, for the sake of preserving Jewish customs. Tzvei Dinim would say two kinds of Ger exist in this case; Ger Toshav and Ger in your Gates. There is no limit as to how many distinctions can be made in theory. There is an infinite amount of combinations found within the Talmud and the Bible. Everything written is a potential ikkar term, and therefore carries an equally potential amount of tzvei dinim, lefi pshuto, and prophetic insight opportunities.
Ger Toshav who ‘properly keeps the Noahide Laws’: A non-Jew who formally accepts upon one’s self the 7 Laws of Noah. In the times of the Temple this would render one as a complete/full Ger Toshav; a proper Ger allowed to live in Israel that is privy to certain rights and advantages. This distinction is given today, albeit on a lower unofficial level. One can choose to properly accept, and thereby called a Ger Toshav, or one can unofficially accept and be treated like a proper Ben Noah who is to be considered like a Ger Toshav.
Ger ‘who eats neveilah’: The Torah commands that a Jew who comes into possession of neveilah, non-kosher meat should either give to a Ger Toshav/of your gates or sell it to the nochri. Biblically the Ger is any non-nochri. Talmudically, it is Ger Toshav, either because he rejects idolatry, or keeps the 7 Laws, or both, or neither; one who minimally doesn’t have a religion of idol worship is considered like a Ger Toshav. An example of the latter is an Ishmaelite, and the former would be a Noahide – lefi pshuto.
Ger Shaar: The Biblical Ger in your gates. It does not exist in the Talmud, and it implies a kosher non-Jew who is in a working proximity with the Jewish people for the sake of serving God in the kosher way. He eats neveilah, keeps Shabbat, and listens to the Torah being read at the Temple, as explained by the Bible itself. The Talmud says a Ger Toshav can do some of these things as well, but in truth that would be a Ger Shaar who doubles as a Ger Toshav semantically. The coupling in this way does not always work, and it depends on the ikkar and the commentary lefi pshuto.
‘Who is a’ Ger Toshav: The Talmud asks ‘who is a Ger Toshav’ and many Rishonim and Achronim copy and paste this expression along with the Talmudic conclusions. The three answers given are: ‘rejects idolatry’, ‘keeps the 7 Laws’, and ‘eats neveilah’ while [potentially] keeping every other commandment in the Torah. The wrong approach is to these three answers as arguing and contradictory. In truth they are three ikkarim, and are speaking lefi pshuto. They are to be applied according to the Torah situation.
If it is a question as to who eats the neveilah, obviously the 3rd answer is used. But then we may qualify still, exactly which Ger Toshav; one that is an Ishmaelite, one who has rejected shituf, one who keeps the 7 Laws, or one who properly accepts the 7 laws etc. The goal isn’t to find a right answer, for there is no right answer, and these are not answers in that way. These function as a raw potential in articulating clearly which type of Ger Toshav we are speaking about in context, in potential, lefi pshuto, through ikkar terms, on a Talmudic level.
For example, the 2nd answer of keeping the 7 Laws needs to be explored when used. Because it is vague, it can give many views, and thus becomes a super-conscious position. Does he keep 7 Laws with an oath? Not an oath? …For the sake of Shabbat? …For the sake of receiving charity? …For the sake of rejecting shituf? None of this uncertainty changes the source; it only changes how we view the source and apply it to the Ger Toshav in context.
We aren’t looking for the one right answer, we are looking to understand Ger in text lefi pshuto, and multiple ikkarim can be used to achieve so. If we come across an opinion that a Ger Toshav can receive charity, and it is not a time of Jubilee, then we will say one who has unofficially accepted upon themselves the 7 laws, and is only to be considered like a Ger Toshav; etc. etc. There is enough Ger Toshav essential material to make a situational category out of the data. This understanding should not concretize into dogma, but rather allows the reader to understand the coordinate of this particular Ger Toshav. Every and any combination of ikkar terms and lefi pshuto explanations can be applied to expanding one’s consciousness of potential Ger Toshav.
Ger Tzedek: The Talmud uses this term to denote either a full convert to Judaism, also known as a Ger Gamur, or a term used to describe a Canaanite Slave who is a quasi-convert to Judaism. The Zohar uses this term mystically, or to denote a non-Jew who has overcame many challenges in order to reside spiritually close to Israel/Jews.
Nilvah: A Prophetic term used to describe a Ger (typically non-Jew) who is attached to Israel in a bonded way. The ikkar phrase would be ‘nilveh – ger’ and the lefi pshuto is to refer to another usage in Tanach, or to describe this as either Ger Toshav or Ger Tzedek. Ger Toshav would be the Biblical Ger Shaar and the Ger Tzedek is the lefi pshuto term for someone who flees to Israel and attaches themselves through serving God. A Canaanite slave who flees his master is the lefi pshuto example of a slave who keeps the 7 Laws, and by fleeing to Israel, will elevate to Ger Tzedek lefi pshuto, since he was always taking on more than the typical 7, by working as a slave.
Ben Necher: A nochri antagonist to Israel
Ben HaNecher: Someone who has nochri ancestry and is uncircumcised either literally, or has no circumcised offspring, lefi pshuto. The term implies a longing to attach to Israel despite obvious lacking, and thus is typically grouped with the nilveh – ger.
Caanite Slave: A non-Jewish slave who has undergone mikveh and milah, and has taken on the commandments of a woman. This is not a full convert, but a quasi convert. When we see Ger Tzedek in text, it will either be speaking about a full convert or Caanite slave. When the subject matter is a slave or Ger Toshav, the Ger Tzedek is never a full convert in context. Under these terms, a Ger Tzedek is called a complete Yisrael as opposed to a Native Yisrael.
The difference would be that a native Yisrael level of conversion can marry a Jew and enters into the 3rd Holy House of Israel, while a full Yisrael [conversion] (non-native) chooses to not marry Jewish, thereby remaining in the 4th non-Holy House of Israel. When speaking about a Ger Tzedek Canaanite, the Talmud often pairs them with Ger Tzedek non-native convert. The native convert is a full Jew while the Ger Tzedek non-native is not a full Jew, but can keep the Shabbat like a Jew. This explanation is lefi pshuto and according to rabbinic ikkar terms. Often times the Ger Toshav slave and Ger Tzedek slave are grouped together, making proper context imperative.
Ger Toshav Slave: A Canaanite slave who does not wish to circumcise or mikveh, and only takes on the 7 Laws of Noah is like a Ger Toshav, and is a Canaanite slave. Through tzvei dinim of the Canaanite slave, we find two types of non-Jewish slaves: [those that are considered] Ger Toshav and Ger Tzedek. Thus with slaves we find the ikkar terms Ger Toshav and Ger Tzedek and their lefi pshuto laws; these should not be confused with literal Ger Tzedek and Ger Toshav. The sources in the Talmud only refer to Ger Toshav and Ger Tzedek; the reader must be able to ascertain through context, ikkar terms, etc. if the source is lefi pshuto, literal, or both. For example, in the laws of Shabbat, a Ger Toshav may not perform melacha for a Jew. The Ger Toshav is tzvei dinim; either a slave, Noahide, Yishmaelite, or a hired worker lefi pshuto. One law may have many applications (and therefore many types of Ger Toshav) yet are all called/considered ‘Ger Toshav’. Tzvei Dinim in such a case is an understatement.
Ger Toshav Jubilee Noheg: A Ger Toshav that only exists in the Jubilee year. Typically this refers to a slave or a runaway slave seeking asylum, or a full Biblical status granting liberty to non-Jews who are working in close capacity with the Jewish People. The righteous non-Jew through keeping the 7 Noahide Laws is considered like a Ger Toshav, but not the Ger Toshav of Jubilee; Tzvei Dinim applies.
Mekablin [Ger Toshav]: A forced acceptance upon someone seeking Ger Toshav status for any number of reasons. The coercion also is implied upon a Jew who must comply with Torah should he employ a Ger Toshav. Since today we can never be sure if one is a Ger Toshav when Torah penalties are involved or monetary loss could occur without proper background check or a perfect oath-taking system, the Talmud says, this type of Ger Toshav ikkar lefi pshuto does not exist, accept in a time of Jubilee, and typically in the Land of Israel.
As long as there is no danger or loss that can occur through one being considered Ger Toshav, then such a Ger Toshav exists at all times and in all places. An example would be the Noahide who rejects shituf is considered like a Ger Toshav; he does not need the Jew to remind him to not do melacha for the Jew. He himself refrains from doing melacha for a Jew, while he does melacha for himself. This level of Ger Toshav who observes Shabbat does not keep Shabbat like a Jew or due to a Jewish covenant; his Shabbat observance is a stringent approach to not serving idols, in the same way as a Jew was commanded at Sinai to not serve idols. The Talmud states that to desecrate Shabbat is akin to idolatry. Thus if the non-Jew performs melacha for a Jew, it is akin to idolatry. This Ger Toshav has rejected shituf, and is considered like a Ger Toshav. The nature of his resting for himself on Shabbat like a Jew could only happen in a time of Jubilee, a full Ger Toshav, a Ger Toshav Gamur, one who has properly accepted the Noahide Laws with a kosher oath.
Ger Toshav Gamur: A complete Ger Toshav, on the level of a Ger Toshav at the time of the Temple, or a time of Jubilee.
‘A Goy who keeps Shabbos is liable for death’: If a nochri does not do melacha for a Jew becomes he thinks he is commanded as such, is liable. A nochri is not commanded in Shabbat in any way, and only rabbinically is a Jew commanded lefi pshuto to remind the nochri to not do melacha for him. A nochri is not a Ger Toshav, and the Ger Toshav is scripturally reminded to not perform melacha for the Jew. The Ger Toshav Shabbat is a way to not serve idolatry, and is therefore categorically not included in the precept against a goy who keeps Shabbat.
Lefi Pshuto, a goy works 24/7, and thus is defined as a person who does melacha. This is a Talmudic ikkar. There is never a reason for the goy to not do melacha lefi pshuto.
‘A goy who learns Torah is liable for death’: The commandment to learn Torah is exclusive for Jews. A Noahide does not have an 8th commandment to Learn Torah [like a Jew]. A Noahide has a commandment of Talmud Torah that is required in order to fulfill the 7 Laws. He gets rewarded as ‘one who is commanded and does’ when ‘dinim’ are performed according to ‘Torat Yisrael’. This is equivalent to a ‘personal kabbalah’, and this per force makes ‘him comparable to a High Priest’ and a display of having ‘rejected shituf’. [Notice how many ikkarim lefi pshuto it takes to explain this point; and there are many more one could bring in for comprehension.]
The non-Jew studies Torah wisdom in order to perform a commandment. Either of the 7, or a ‘Ben Noah may do any of the commandments according to the halacha’. Shabbat and Torah are separate; Shabbat is a part of rejecting idolatry, and Torah we address here.
A Jew who studies Torah according to the commandment is not required to perform the law he is studying; his Torah study may or may not be theoretical. The Ben Noah who engages in deep Torah wisdom must apply the wisdom learned by fulfilling the din; his study is not Jewish, it is not theoretical. Thus if he studies like a Jew out of a desire for the theoretical, he is liable for death [only by the hands of heaven, for he has stolen – lefi pshuto, and according to the ikkar]. Like all ikkarim and lefi pshuto, this ikkar is merely saying that a Ben Noah may not purely study as a Jew. He may study as a non-Jew, and that means that he may study alone where acceptable and/or with a Jew beyond that, even into the theoretical realm. The ikkarim are many, as we take into account many factors: is it a goy, acum, noahide, nochri, ger, which kind of ger, etc. Each coordinate will yield revelation to the permission made available to the non-Jew. The death penalty is not literal, it is lefi pshuto and refers to stealing. Stealing is one of the Noahide Laws, and thus it is brought here lefi pshuto. There are numerous calculations that one can figure of this law. The diligent student will find the ikkarim, and work them out lefi pshuto; God is merciful to the Torah student. The Ben Noah who learns Torah is liable for death, and all are required to understand the ikkar lefi pshuto.
Noahide: Often thought to be a translation of a Ben Noah; it isn’t. Ben Noah is more closely related to the Ger Toshav, and the Biblical term is Ger, while the underachieving Talmudic term is Chasid Umot HaOlam. Noahide is billed as a Chasid…in scholarly circles, but is still inaccurate. A Ger Toshav is a Chasid… and the Noahide term is meant to exclude Ger Toshav, for Noahides are allowed to worship in shituf, and are not commanded to reject shituf. Noahides are categorically shituf, and are employed as a Shabbos goy; this is synonymous with nochri and acum. The difference between a Noahide and a regular nochri is that the Noahides non-religion is a religion of the 7 laws where a kosher belief in God is not required, and the nochri keeps the 7 Laws under a different religion, with known ideologies of shituf.
‘A goy/acum/nochri/ger who learns Torah is like a High Priest’: The Talmud and Midrash bring this quote in many places. It is often considered unauthoritative folklore/aggadattah; it isn’t, it is halachic. The non-Jew who learns Torah is compared to the High Priest for many reasons; namely because just as a High Priest performs more commandments than a regular Jew, so too the non-Jew who is involved in Torah in the prescribed way, will find that he has more commandments that he may fulfill, and not part of the 7. Bnei Noah can bring an offering to the Temple, and can even offer a sacrifice today while a Jew cannot. The Jew may learn about it in theory, and even aide the non-Jew who receives the theoretical learning from the Jew, and is then able to put theory into practice; he is like a High Priest.
‘Commanded and Does’: The Bnei Noah are commanded to keep 7 Laws, for all time and in every place. Mount Sinai changed history by routing the 7 Laws through the Torah of Moses; Noahide Law must be according to Torah to receive ample reward, as someone who is commanded and does/fulfills. The alternative is to not be commanded, although obligated, and thus the reward is inappropriate. The Noahide Laws must be properly accepted onto the Ben Noah with a kosher kabbalah/personal acceptance. This makes a ‘Ben Noah Kosher’, and the details are in the ikkar and lefi pshuto. Many terminologies are involved and are appropriate according to the coordinate of the person and/or the source involved. For example, this kabbalah will render one as a Ger Toshav, or more specifically as one who is to be considered like a Ger Toshav; the difference is in the specifics, the semantics, the sources used, and in the ikkar [lefi pshuto].
One who refuses kabbalah is considered as remaining uncommanded according to the type of reward; the reward is lefi pshuto and serves as a definition toward the relationship between the Jew and the non-Jew. Shabbat Law is a practical domain lefi pshuto to ascertain which type of non-Jew is present. One would need to know if the non-Jew is on the level of being commanded and fulfilling, i.e. mekablin [to receive an appropriate reward]. The consequences are serious, and a monetary loss can occur either for the non-Jew or the Jew. Reward is not a literal term; it is an ikkar term, and it is used lefi pshuto.
Shituf: Attributing another power to God. Roughly, this is any non-Kosher belief in God. All organized religion is shituf; Noahides are not commanded to reject shituf. It is however encouraged to reject shituf and is praiseworthy. A Jew who identifies a non-Jew who has naturally come to reject shituf, has an incumbent obligation to associate with the non-Jew as someone considered to be like a Ger Toshav. A Ger Toshav does not engage in shituf; that is his fundamental ikkar, and its lowest common denominator explanation lefi pshuto [in a time when there is no Jubilee].
Ben Noah - Ger Toshav: A non-Jew must properly accept the Noahide Laws to reclaim the ikkar status lefi pshuto of ‘commanded and fulfills’. This is achieved in Beit Din and elevates one into a Ger Toshav. Ideally this is the prescriptive route in a time of Jubilee, however the obligation still exists. A minimal Beit Din of 3 Jewish Friends may be used to grant a status that is, like a Ger Toshav; the benefit is to reject shituf and to learn Torah and to keep Shabbat lefi pshuto. If one cannot appear before Beit Din either because it is not a time of Jubilee or if it is too difficult, they may remain a Ben Noah, but are considered as commanded and fulfills. Their status connotes being not a Ger Toshav Gamur – without question. They are not a traditional Ben Noah Kosher and all the more so they are not a regular Ben Noah [and all the more so a Noahide]; this is tzvei dinim /two laws, and they may keep any commandment according to the halacha.
A Commandment to sustain the Ger Toshav: The Jew has a Scriptural Commandment to sustain the Ger Toshav; the source is the giving of the neveilah. Even one who is considered like a Ger Toshav is to receive help; the minimal observance of this is that as long as one is not a wicked acum, a Jew cannot hurt them, even though he may choose to not actively help them. This is the lowest common denominator, as the appropriate infrastructure to ascertain who is a Kosher Ger Toshav will exist until Jubilee. Where there are monetary or consequential issues at play, the minimal degree is implemented. The laws of this commandment are many; they depend on the ikkar and the coordinate. The law can fluctuate in accordance with literal reality and lefi pshuto. One may be a literal Ger Toshav yet remain an acum lefi pshuto based on circumstances. However a person who is considered like a Ger Toshav may be the beneficiary of neveilah, or of anything equivalent. To properly conduct one’s self according to the law, one must weigh the coordinate, reality, lefi pshuto, scenario etc. Torah scholars create peace in the World, and Hashem is merciful. Only to the idolater do we show no mercy, lest we learn from their ways.
Don’t taunt the Ger: 46 times in the Torah we are warned against taunting the Ger. This is literal, and the Talmud understands that this is literal, but emphasizes a meaning lefi pshuto, i.e. the renegade slave, and allegorically, to anyone who is a ger allegorically.